Skip to main content

Full text of "Arkansas Governors and United States Senators"

See other formats

The Project Gutenberg eBook, Arkansas Governors and United States
Senators, by John L. Ferguson

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: Arkansas Governors and United States Senators

Author: John L. Ferguson

Release Date: December 31, 2005  [eBook #17433]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-646-US (US-ASCII)


E-text prepared by Shannon Seyler



John L. Ferguson
State Historian

Arkansas History Commission
Little Rock



This list of Arkansas governors and United States senators, with
brief biographies of each person who has served in these offices, is
intended to benefit students and others who have expressed interest in
a published summary of such information. We have omitted the dozens of
"acting governors," including some who served for substantial periods
of time, as well as senators who held office only briefly. Copies of
this publication are free, and the material is not copyrighted or


On March 2, 1819, Arkansas was legally separated from Missouri and
became the Territory of Arkansas. The act became effective on July 4
following. During the territorial period the governors were appointed
by the President of the United States, with the approval of the United
States Senate, for terms of three years.

1. James Miller, 1819-1824

Lawyer, soldier. Born in New Hampshire, 1776. Educated at Amherst
Academy and Williams College, Massachusetts. Admitted to bar, 1803.
Married Martha Ferguson, 1801; two children. Married Ruth Flint, 1806;
five children.

Commissioned major of infantry in regular army, 1808. Lieutenant
colonel, 1810; colonel, 1812; brigadier general, 1814. Hero of Battle
of Lundy's Lane, Canada, 1814. Received Congressional gold medal for
gallantry, 1814. Resigned from army, 1819.

Governor of Arkansas, 1819-1824. United States collector of customs,
Salem, Massachusetts, 1824-1849. Died 1851.

2. George Izard, 1825-1828

Soldier. Born in England, 1776. Attended military schools in England,
Germany, and France. Commissioned lieutenant in artillerists and
engineers, United States Army, 1794. Captain, 1799. Resigned from
army, 1803. Married Elizabeth Carter Shippen, 1803; three children.

Accepted new commission as colonel of artillery, 1812. Brigadier
general, 1813; major general, 1814. Honorably discharged, 1815.
Governor of Arkansas from 1825 until his death in 1828.

3. John Pope, 1829-1835

Lawyer. Born in Virginia, 1770. Married Ann Henry Christian, c.1795.
Married Elizabeth Johnson, 1810; two children. Married Frances Watkins
Walton, 1820.

State senator, Kentucky, 1798-1799, 1825-1829. Member, Kentucky House
of Representatives, 1802, 1806-1807, 1823-1825. United States senator
from Kentucky, 1807-1813. Professor of law, Transylvania University,
1813-1816. Secretary of State of Kentucky, 1816-1819. Governor of
Arkansas, 1829-1835. Congressman from Kentucky, 1837-1843. Died 1845.

4. William S. Fulton, 1835-1836

Lawyer. Born in Maryland, 1795. Graduated from Baltimore College, 1813.
Moved to Tennessee after serving in War of 1812. Admitted to bar, 1817.
Military secretary to General Andrew Jackson in Florida campaign of
1818. Moved to Alabama, 1820. Married Matilda Nowland, 1823; four

Elected judge of county court, Florence, Alabama, 1822. Secretary
of Territory of Arkansas, 1829-1835. Last governor of Territory of
Arkansas, 1835-1836. United States senator from Arkansas, 1836-1844.
Died 1844.


Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the twenty-fifth state on June
15, 1836. From 1836 until 1874, governors were elected for four-year
terms. During the remainder of our history the term of office has been
two years.

1. James S. Conway, 1836-1840

Planter, surveyor, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1798. Came to Arkansas
from Missouri, 1820. Married Mary Jane Bradley, 1826; six children.

First surveyor-general of Arkansas Territory. Inaugurated as first
governor of the State of Arkansas, September 13, 1836. In 1840 retired
to "Walnut Hill," his plantation in Lafayette County. Died 1855.

2. Archibald Yell, 1840-1844

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1797 or 1799. Served in War of
1812, and in Seminole War of 1818. Married Mary Scott, 1821; two
children. Married Ann Jordan Moore, 1827; four children. Married Maria
Ficklin, 1836.

Member, Tennessee House of Representatives, 1827. Came to Arkansas
1831. Receiver at federal land office in Little Rock, 1831-1832. Moved
to Fayetteville, 1834. Territorial judge, 1835-1836. Congressman,
1836-1839, 1845-1847. Governor, 1840-1844.

Left Congress in 1846 to become colonel of First Arkansas Volunteer
Cavalry, Mexican War. Killed at Battle of Buena Vista, Mexico, 1847.

3. Thomas S. Drew, 1844-1849

Planter, peddler, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1802. Came to
Arkansas 1818. Clerk of Clark County, 1823-1825. Moved to what is now
Randolph County, 1826. Married Cinderella Bettis, 1826, five children.

Judge of Lawrence County, 1832-1833. Delegate to Arkansas
constitutional convention, 1836. Governor, 1844-1849. Resigned as
governor, 1849, and returned to Pocahontas. Moved to Hood County,
Texas, after death of his wife in 1872. Died in Texas, 1879.

4. John S. Roane, 1849-1852

Planter, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1817. Attended Cumberland
College, Princeton, Kentucky. Came to Arkansas 1837, settled at Pine
Bluff. Moved to Van Buren 1842. Speaker, Arkansas House of
Representatives, 1844-1845.

Served in Mexican War. Returned to Pine Bluff, 1848. Governor,
1849-1852. Married Mary K. Smith, 1855; five children. Brigadier
general, Confederate Army. Died 1867.

5. Elias N. Conway, 1852-1860

Surveyor, public official, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1812; younger
brother of Governor James S. Conway. Came to Arkansas from Missouri
1833. Territorial auditor, 1835-1836. State auditor, 1836-1849.
Governor, 1852-1860. Never married. Died 1892.

6. Henry M. Rector, 1860-1862

Planter, lawyer, Independent Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1816. Came to
Arkansas from Missouri, 1835; settled in Hot Springs. Married Ernestine
Flora Linde, 1860; one child.

Appointed federal marshal, 1842. State senator, 1848-1852. Moved
to Little Rock, 1854. Member, House of Representatives, 1854-1855.
Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1859-1860. Governor, 1860-1862.
Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Died 1899.

7. Harris Flanagin, 1862-1865

Lawyer, Confederate. Born in New Jersey, 1817. Moved to Clark County,
Arkansas, from Illinois, 1837. Married Martha E. Nash, 1851; five

Member, House of Representatives, 1842-1843. Delegate, secession
convention, 1861. Colonel, Confederate Army. Governor, 1862-1865.
Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Died 1874.

8. Isaac Murphy, 1864-1868

Teacher, lawyer, Unionist Democrat. Born in Pennsylvania, 1799.
Settled in Tennessee, 1830; came to Arkansas 1834. Married Angelina A.
Lockhart, 1830; eight children.

Member, House of Representatives, Washington County, 1848-1849. Went to
California 1849, returned 1853. Moved to Huntsville, Madison County,
1854. State senator, 1856-1857.

Delegate, secession convention of 1861; only member who refused to
vote for secession of Arkansas from the Union. Served with Union Army,
1861-1863. Organized Unionist state government in Little Rock, 1864;
served as governor until displaced by Radical Republicans, 1868. Died
in Huntsville, 1882.

9. Powell Clayton, 1868-1871

Civil engineer, soldier, Republican. Born in Pennsylvania, 1833.
Educated in the common schools, the Partridge Military Academy in
Bristol, Pennsylvania, and in an engineering school at Wilmington,
Delaware. Moved to Kansas, 1855; became city engineer of Leavenworth,
Kansas, 1859.

Brigadier general, Union Army; came to Arkansas with army during Civil
War. At close of war, settled on a cotton plantation near Pine Bluff.
Married Adeline McGraw, 1865; five children.

Governor, 1868-1871; resigned in 1871 to become United States senator
for term ending 1877. Moved from Little Rock to Eureka Springs, 1882.
United States ambassador to Mexico, 1897-1905. Lived in Washington,
D.C. from 1912 until his death in 1915.

Note: The unexpired portion of Powell Clayton's term as governor,
      1871-1873, was completed by Ozra A. Hadley, president of the
      State Senate.

10. Elisha Baxter, 1873-1874

Lawyer, Republican. Born in North Carolina, 1827. Married Harriet
Patton, 1849; six children. Came to Arkansas 1852, settled in
Batesville. Member, House of Representatives, 1854-1855, 1858-1859.
Prosecuting attorney, 1861-1862.

Raised and commanded Fourth Arkansas Mounted Infantry Regiment (Union)
during Civil War. Elected to State Supreme Court, 1864, and then to
United States Senate, but not allowed to take his seat. Circuit judge,
1868-1873. Governor, 1873-1874; his term of office was cut short by the
Brooks-Baxter War and the adoption of a new state constitution. Died

11. Augustus H. Garland, 1874-1877

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1832. His parents came to what
is now Miller County, Arkansas, 1833; later the family located in
Washington, Hempstead County. Educated in a private school at
Washington; at St. Mary's College, Lebanon, Kentucky; and at St.
Joseph's College, Bardstown, Kentucky, where he graduated 1849. Married
Virginia Saunders, 1853; eight children. Moved to Little Rock, 1856.

Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Delegate to Provisional Congress
of Confederate States, 1861; Confederate congressman, 1861-1864;
Confederate States senator, 1864-1865. Governor, 1874-1877. United
States senator, 1877-1885. Attorney General of the United States under
President Grover Cleveland, 1885-1889; first Arkansan to hold a cabinet
post. Died 1899.

12. William R. Miller, 1877-1881

Lawyer, Democrat. Born at Batesville, Arkansas, 1823. Clerk of
Independence County, 1848-1854. Married Susan Elizabeth Bevens, 1849;
seven children.

State auditor, 1854-1855, 1857-1860, 1861-1864, 1866-1868, 1874-1877,
1887. Accountant of Real Estate Bank of Arkansas, 1855-1856. Governor,
1877-1881; first native Arkansan to hold office. Died 1887.

13. Thomas J. Churchill, 1881-1883

Planter, soldier, lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1824. Educated at
St. Mary's College and Transylvania University. Served in Mexican War.
Moved to Arkansas 1848, acquired a plantation near Little Rock. Married
Anne Maria Sevier, 1849; six children.

Postmaster at Little Rock, 1857-1861. Major general, Confederate Army;
commanded at the Battle of Arkansas Post, 1863. State treasurer,
1874-1881. Governor, 1881-1883. Died 1905.

14. James H. Berry, 1883-1885

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Alabama, 1841. When he was seven, his father
moved to Carrollton, Carroll County, Arkansas. Attended Berryville
Academy. Served in Confederate Army; lost a leg at Battle of Corinth.
Married Elizabeth Quaile, 1865; six children. Moved to Bentonville,

Served in House of Representatives from Carroll County, 1866-1867; from
Washington and Benton Counties, 1873-1874. Speaker of the House, 1874.
Circuit judge, 1878-1882. Governor, 1883-1885. United States senator,
1885-1907. Died 1913.

15. Simon P. Hughes, 1885-1889

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1830. Moved to Pulaski County,
Arkansas, with his parents, 1844. Educated in Tennessee, 1846-1849.
Returned to Arkansas 1849 and became a farmer. Sheriff, Monroe County,
1854-1856. Began practice of law at Clarendon, 1857. Married Ann E.
Blakemore, 1857; nine children.

Lieutenant Colonel, Confederate Army. Member, House of Representatives
from Monroe County, 1866-1867. Delegate, constitutional convention of
1874. Attorney general, 1874-1877. Governor, 1885-1889. Associate
justice, Supreme Court, 1889-1904. Died 1906.

16. James P. Eagle, 1889-1893

Planter, minister, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1837. Came with parents
to Pulaski County, Arkansas, 1839. Moved to what is now Lonoke County,
1857. Lieutenant Colonel, Confederate Army. Ordained to Baptist
ministry, 1869.

Member, House of Representatives, 1873-1874, 1877; Speaker of the
House, 1885. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Married Mary
Kavanaugh Oldham, 1882. Governor, 1889-1893. President, Arkansas
Baptist State Convention, 1880-1904. President, Southern Baptist
Convention, 1902-1904. Died 1904.

17. William M. Fishback, 1893-1895

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Virginia, 1831. Graduated from University of
Virginia; studied law in Richmond. Came to Arkansas from Illinois 1858;
settled at Fort Smith.

Delegate, secession convention, 1861. Went to Missouri 1862 and took
oath of allegiance to Union. Elected to United States Senate from
Arkansas 1864, but not allowed to take his seat. Married Adelaide
Miller, 1867; six children.

Delegate, constitutional convention of 1874. Member, House of
Representatives, Sebastian County, 1877, 1879. Governor, 1893-1895.
Died 1903.

18. James P. Clarke, 1895-1897

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1854. Graduated from law school,
University of Virginia. Came to Arkansas 1879; opened law office in
Helena. Married Sallie Moore Wooten, 1883; three children.

Member, House of Representatives, Phillips County, 1887. State senator,
1889, 1891. Attorney general, 1893-1895. Governor, 1895-1897. United
States senator, 1903-1916. Died 1916.

19. Dan W. Jones, 1897-1901

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Texas, 1839. Moved with parents to
Washington, Arkansas, 1840. Colonel, Confederate Army. Married Margaret
P. Hadley, 1864; seven children.

Prosecuting attorney, 1874-1876. Attorney general, 1885-1889. Member,
House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1891, 1915. Governor,
1897-1901. Died 1918.

20. Jeff Davis, 1901-1907

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in what is now Little River County, Arkansas,
1862. Educated in common schools; preparatory department, Arkansas
Industrial University; law school, Vanderbilt University. Received law
degree, Cumberland University. Married Ina McKenzie, 1882; twelve
children. Married Leila Carter, 1911.

Practiced law at Russellville, Arkansas. Prosecuting attorney,
1890-1894. Attorney general, 1899-1901. Governor, 1901-1907; first
governor to be elected to more than two terms. United States senator,
1907-1913. Died 1913.

21. John S. Little, 1907-1909

Lawyer, Democrat. Born at Jenny Lind, Sebastian County, Arkansas, 1851.
Attended Cane Hill College, Cane Hill, Arkansas. Married Elizabeth J.
Irwin, 1877; five children.

Prosecuting attorney, 1877-1884. Member, House of Representatives,
Sebastian County, 1885. Circuit judge, 1886-1887. Congressman,
1894-1907. Governor, 1907-1909. Soon after his inauguration, he
suffered a nervous collapse and was unable to perform his duties for
the remainder of his term. Died 1916.

22. George W. Donaghey, 1909-1913

Building contractor, banker, Democrat. Born in Louisiana, 1856. Came to
Union County, Arkansas with his parents when a child. Worked as a
farmer and cowboy in Texas. Moved to Conway, 1874; became a carpenter
and contractor. Attended Arkansas Industrial University (now the
University of Arkansas). Married Louvinia Wallace, 1883.

Governor, 1909-1913. Philanthropist, business and civic leader for many
years. Died 1937.

23. Joseph T. Robinson, 1913

Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Lonoke, Arkansas, 1872. Educated in the
common schools; Arkansas Industrial University; and the law department
of the University of Virginia. Admitted to bar 1895; commenced practice
in Lonoke. Married Ewilda Gertrude Miller, 1896.

Member, House of Representatives, Lonoke County, 1895. Congressman,
1903-1913. Governor, 1913; resigned to become United States senator,
1913-1937. Democratic leader in Senate, 1923-1937. Democratic nominee
for vice-president of the United States, 1928. Died 1937.

24. George W. Hays, 1913-1917

Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Camden, Arkansas, 1863. Graduated from
Washington And Lee University. Married Ida Virginia Yarborough, 1895;
two children.

County judge, Ouachita County, 1901-1905. Circuit judge, 1906-1913.
Governor, 1913-1917. Died 1927.

25. Charles H. Brough, 1917-1921

Educator, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1876. B.A., Mississippi
College, 1893; Ph.D., Johns Hopkins University, 1898; LL.B., University
of Mississippi, 1902. Married Anne Wade Roark, 1908.

Professor of economics and sociology, University of Arkansas,
1904-1916. Governor 1917-1921. Chautauqua lecturer. President, Central
Baptist College, Conway, 1928-1929. Died 1935.

26. Thomas C. McRae, 1921-1925

Lawyer, banker, Democrat. Born at Mount Holly, Union County, Arkansas,
1851. Graduated from Soule Business College, New Orleans, 1869; LL.B.,
Washington and Lee University, 1872. Married Amelia Ann White, 1874;
nine children.

Member, House of Representatives, Nevada County, 1877. Congressman,
1885-1903. Delegate, constitutional convention of 1917-1918. Governor,
1921-1925. Died 1929.

27. Tom J. Terral, 1925-1927

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Louisiana, 1882. Attended University of
Kentucky; LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1910. Married Eula Terrell,

Secretary, Arkansas Senate, 1913, 1915. Secretary of State, 1917-1921.
Governor, 1925-1927. Died 1946.

28. John E. Martineau, 1927-1928

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1873. A.B., Arkansas Industrial
University, 1896; graduated, University law school, 1899. Married Mrs.
Anne Holcomb Mitchell, 1909. Married Mrs. Mabel Erwin Thomas, 1919.

Member, House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1903, 1905.
Chancellor, 1907-1927. Governor, 1927-1928; resigned to become United
States district judge, 1928-1937. Died 1937.

29. Harvey Parnell, 1928-1933

Planter, businessman, Democrat. Born in Dorsey (now Cleveland) County,
Arkansas, 1880. Married Mabel Winston, 1902; two children.

Member, House of Representatives, Chicot County, 1919, 1921. State
senator, 1923, 1925. Lieutenant governor, 1927-1928. Succeeded to
governorship when John E. Martineau resigned, 1928; elected to full
terms 1928, 1930. Died 1936.

30. J.M. Futrell, 1933-1937

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Greene County, Arkansas, 1870. Attended
Arkansas Industrial University. Married Tera A. Smith, 1893; six

Member, House of Representatives, Greene County, 1897, 1901, 1903.
Circuit clerk, Greene County, 1907-1911. State senator, 1913, 1915.
Acting governor, March-July 1913. Circuit judge, 1921. Chancellor,
1923-1932. Governor, 1933-1937. Died 1955.

31. Carl E. Bailey, 1937-1941

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1894. Attended business college in
Chillicothe, Missouri. Married Margaret Bristol, 1915; six children.
Married Marjorie Compton, 1943.

Prosecuting attorney, 1931-1935. Attorney general, 1935-1937. Governor,
1937-1941. Died 1948.

32. Homer M. Adkins, 1941-1945

Pharmacist, businessman, Democrat. Born near Jacksonville, Arkansas,
1890. Attended Draughon's Business College of Pharmacy. Captain, United
States Army, First World War. Married Estelle Smith, 1921.

Sheriff, Pulaski County, 1923-1927. United States collector of internal
revenue for Arkansas, 1933-1940. Governor, 1941-1945. Administrator,
Employment Security Division, 1949-1952. Died 1964.

33. Ben T. Laney, 1945-1949

Businessman, Democrat. Born in Ouachita County, near Smackover,
Arkansas, 1896. Served in United States Navy, First World War. A.B.,
State Normal School (now State College), Conway, 1924. Graduate study,
University of Utah.

Married Lucille Kirtley, 1926; three children. Mayor of Camden,
1935-1939. Governor, 1945-1949.

34. Sid McMath, 1949-1953

Lawyer, Democrat. Born near Magnolia, Arkansas, 1912. LL.B., University
of Arkansas, 1936. Married Elaine Braughton, 1937; one child. Married
Anne Phillips, 1945; two children.

Lieutenant Colonel, United States Marine Corps, Second World War.
Prosecuting attorney, 1947-1949. Governor, 1949-1953.

35. Francis Cherry, 1953-1955

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Fort Worth, Texas, 1908. Graduated Oklahoma
A.& M. College, 1930. LL.B., University of Arkansas, 1936. Married
Margaret Frierson; three children.

Lieutenant (j.g.), United States Navy, Second World War. Chancellor,
1943-1944, 1949-1952. Governor, 1953-1955. Member, United States
Subversive Activities Control Board, 1955-1963; chairman, 1963-1965.
Died 1965.

36. Orval E. Faubus, 1955-1967

Newspaperman, Democrat. Born near Combs, Arkansas, 1910. Attended
Madison County schools. Married Alta Haskins, 1931; one son. Major,
United States Army, Second World War.

Circuit Clerk, Madison County, 1939-1942. Administrative assistant to
Governor Sid McMath, highway commissioner, highway director, 1949-1953.
Postmaster, Huntsville, 1953-1954. Governor, 1955-1967.

37. Winthrop Rockefeller, 1967-

Financier, farmer, Republican. Born in New York, 1912. Attended Yale
University. Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army, Second World War.
Married Barbara Sears, 1948; one son. Married Jeannette Edris, 1956.

Moved to Arkansas, 1953. Chairman, Arkansas Industrial Development
Commission, 1955-1964. First Republican elected governor since 1872.


Each state is entitled to two United States senators. Until 1913,
senators were elected by state legislatures; since that time, by
popular vote. Our first senators, chosen in 1836, were Ambrose H.
Sevier and William S. Fulton. In the following pages, biographies of
Sevier and his successors are given first.

1. Ambrose H. Sevier 1836-1848

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1801. Came to Arkansas from
Missouri, 1821. Clerk, Territorial House of Representatives, 1821.
Member, Territorial House of Representatives, Pulaski County, 1823,
1825; speaker, 1827.

Territorial delegate to Congress, 1828-1836. United States senator,
1836-1848. United States Minister to Mexico, March-June 1848. Died

2. Solon Borland, 1848-1853

Physician, Democrat. Born in Virginia, 1808. Attended schools in North
Carolina; studied medicine; located in Little Rock, Arkansas. Major,
First Arkansas Volunteer Cavalry, Mexican War.

United States senator, 1848-1853. United States Minister to Central
American Republics, 1853-1854. Brigadier general, Confederate Army.
Died 1864.

3. Robert W. Johnson, 1853-1861

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1814. Moved with his father to
Arkansas, 1821. Graduated from St. Joseph's College, Bardstown,
Kentucky, 1833, and from Yale Law School, 1835. Practiced law in Little
Rock, Arkansas, 1835-1847.

Prosecuting attorney, 1840-1845. Congressman, 1847-1853. United States
senator, 1853-1861. Delegate to provisional Confederate Congress,
1861-1862. Confederate States senator, 1862-1865. Practiced law in
Washington, D.C. after the war. Died 1879.

4. Charles B. Mitchel, 1861

Physician, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1815. Graduated from University
of Nashville, Tennessee, 1833, and from Jefferson Medical College,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1836. Moved to Washington, Arkansas, where
he practiced medicine for twenty-five years.

Member, House of Representatives, Hempstead County, 1848-1849. Receiver
of public moneys, 1853-1856. United States senator, 1861. Confederate
States senator, 1862-1864. Died 1864.

Note: Arkansas was not represented in the United States Senate from
      its secession in 1861 until the state was readmitted to the
      Union in 1868.

5. Benjamin F. Rice, 1868-1873

Lawyer, Republican. Born in New York, 1828. Member, Kentucky House of
Representatives, 1855-1856. Moved to Minnesota, 1860. Captain, Union

Settled in Little Rock, Arkansas, 1864. Active in organizing Republican
party in Arkansas. United States senator, 1868-1873. Moved to Colorado
1875, and to Washington, D.C. 1882. Died 1905.

6. Stephen W. Dorsey, 1873-1879

Businessman, Republican. Born in Vermont, 1842. Moved to Ohio and
settled in Oberlin. Served in Union Army. After Civil War, returned to
Ohio; became president of Sandusky Tool Company. Elected president,
Arkansas Railway Company. Moved to Arkansas, settled in Helena.

United States senator, 1873-1879. After his service in Senate, devoted
himself to cattle raising and mining in New Mexico and Colorado.
Resided in Colfax County, New Mexico; Denver, Colorado; and Los
Angeles, California. Died 1916.

7. James D. Walker, 1879-1885

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Kentucky, 1830. Attended private schools in
Kentucky, and Ozark Institute and Arkansas College, Fayetteville,
Arkansas. Moved to Arkansas 1847. Admitted to bar 1850; practiced law
in Fayetteville. Colonel, Confederate Army; captured at Oak Hills,
Missouri in 1861 and spent two years in military prison.

Resumed practice of law in Fayetteville, 1865. United States senator,
1879-1885. Died 1906.

8. James K. Jones, 1885-1903

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Mississippi, 1839. Moved with his parents to
Dallas County, Arkansas, 1848. Served in Confederate Army. Admitted to
bar 1874 and commenced practice in Washington, Arkansas.

State senator, 1873-1877; president of Senate, 1877. Congressman,
1881-1885. United States senator, 1885-1903. Chairman, Democratic
National Committee, 1896, 1900. Died 1908.

9. James P. Clarke, 1903-1916

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 18).

10. William F. Kirby, 1916-1921

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in what is now Miller County, Arkansas, 1867.
Studied law at Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tennessee; graduated
1885. Admitted to bar 1885, commenced practice in Texarkana, Arkansas.

Member, House of Representatives, Miller County, 1893, 1897. State
senator 1899, 1901. Author of "Kirby's Digest of the Statutes of
Arkansas," 1904. Moved to Little Rock, 1907. Attorney General,
1907-1909. Associate justice, Supreme Court, 1910-1916, 1927-1934.
United States senator, 1916-1921. Died 1934.

11. Thaddeus H. Caraway, 1921-1931

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1871. Moved with his parents to
Clay County, Arkansas, 1883. Graduated in 1896 from Dickson (Tennessee)
College. Admitted to bar 1900, commenced practice in Osceola, Arkansas.
Moved to Lake City, Craighead County, 1900, and to Jonesboro, 1901.

Prosecuting attorney, 1908-1912. Congressman, 1913-1921. United States
senator, 1921-1931. Died 1931.

12. Hattie W. Caraway, 1931-1945

Democrat, wife of Senator Thaddeus H. Caraway. Born in Tennessee, 1878.
Graduated from Dickson (Tennessee) Normal College, 1896. Married and
thereafter located in Jonesboro, Arkansas.

Appointed United States senator to succeed her husband 1931; elected
1932 and 1938; served 1931-1945. Member, United States Employees'
Compensation Commission, 1945-1946. Member, United States Employees'
Compensation Appeals Board, 1946-1950. Died 1950.

13. James William Fulbright, 1945-

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1905. Moved with his parents to
Fayetteville, Arkansas 1906. Was graduated from University of Arkansas,
1925; as a Rhodes scholar from Oxford University, England, 1928; and
from law department of George Washington University, Washington, D.C.,
1934. Admitted to District of Columbia bar, 1934.

Attorney, United States Department of Justice, Antitrust Division,
1934-1935. Instructor in law, George Washington University, 1935;
lecturer in law, University of Arkansas, 1936-1939. President of the
University of Arkansas, 1939-1941. Congressman, 1943-1945. United
States senator since 1945.

1. William S. Fulton, 1836-1844

(See "Governors of the Territory of Arkansas," number 4).

2. Chester Ashley, 1844-1848

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Massachusetts, 1790. Moved with his parents
to Hudson, New York, during infancy. Was graduated from Williams
College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, and the Litchfield (Connecticut)
Law School.

Admitted to bar 1817 and commenced practice of law in Hudson, New York.
Moved to Edwardsville, Illinois, 1818; to St. Louis, Missouri, 1819;
and to Little Rock, Arkansas, 1820. United States senator 1844-1848.
Died 1848.

3. William K. Sebastian, 1848-1861

Lawyer, planter, Democrat. Born in Tennessee, 1812. Was graduated from
Columbia College, Tennessee, about 1834. Commenced practice of law in
Helena, Arkansas, 1835.

Prosecuting attorney, 1835-1837. Circuit judge, 1840-1842. Associate
justice, Supreme Court, 1843-1845. Member and president of State
Senate, 1846-1847. United States senator, 1848-1861. Expelled from
Senate, 1861; returned to Helena and practiced law; took no part in
Confederate war effort. Moved to Memphis, 1864. Died 1865.

In 1877, the United States Senate revoked his expulsion and paid the
full amount of his compensation to his children.

Note: Arkansas was not represented in the United States Senate from
      its secession in 1861 until the state was readmitted to the
      Union in 1868.

4. Alexander McDonald, 1868-1871

Businessman, banker, Republican. Born in Pennsylvania, 1832. Attended
Dickinson Seminary, Williamsport, Pennsylvania; and Lewisburg
University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania. Moved to Kansas, 1857. Served in
Union Army. Came to Arkansas 1863, settled in Little Rock.

United States senator, 1868-1871. Engaged in development of railroads.
Moved to New York City, 1900. Died 1903.

5. Powell Clayton, 1871-1877

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 9)

6. Augustus H. Garland, 1877-1885

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 11)

7. James H. Berry, 1885-1907

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 14)

8. Joseph T. Robinson, 1913-1937

(See "Governors of the State of Arkansas," number 23)

9. John E. Miller, 1937-1941

Lawyer, banker, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1888. Attended Southeast
Missouri State Teachers College, Cape Girardeau; and Valparaiso
(Indiana) University. Graduated from law department, University of
Kentucky, 1912. Admitted to bar 1912, commenced practice in Searcy,

Delegate, constitutional convention of 1917-1918. Prosecuting attorney,
1921-1923. Congressman, 1931-1937. United States senator from 1937
until he resigned in 1941 to become United States district judge for
the western district of Arkansas.

11. Lloyd Spencer, 1941-1943

Banker, Democrat. Born in Missouri, 1893. Moved to Okolona, Arkansas,
1902. Attended Henderson College, Arkadelphia. Served in United States
Navy, First World War, 1918. Moved to Hope, Arkansas, 1921.

Appointed to United States Senate 1941; term expired 1943. Served in
United States Navy, Second World War, 1943.

12. John L. McClellan, 1943-

Lawyer, Democrat. Born in Sheridan, Arkansas, 1896. Attended public
schools. Admitted to bar 1913, commenced practice in Sheridan. First
lieutenant, United States Army, First World War, 1917-1919.

Moved to Malvern, Arkansas, 1919. Prosecuting attorney, 1927-1930.
Congressman, 1935-1939. Resumed practice of law in Camden, Arkansas.
United States senator since 1943.


******* This file should be named 17433.txt or *******

This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.